Timeline

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As one progresses through history away from the ancient origin of things, the value of one’s origins seems to fade into that same ethereal sky wherein the errors of Western philosophy hang like breaks of falling starlight passing through the vacuums and crystalline spheres of science, which scientists now call ‘history’ and historians call ‘natural philosophy.’ Unlike the scientist, whose concern for history is a fleecing substance similar in spirit and kind to the material abstractions of ‘substance’ chemistry used in American textbooks, the individual is bound to a genetic, social, spiritual, and diachronic narrative of history which the scientist coldly mispronounces—”In the name of Science.”

The purpose of having a timeline on Dr. Geyser’s Health and Wellness Blog is to provide the reader with a quick reference to the historical events that structure arguments I use in posts. A timeline for Dr. Geyser’s Health and Wellness Blog, featuring events that should concern doctors, some of which are medically related to medicine, some of which are historically related to medicine, some of which are scientifically related to medicine, all of which are chronologically related to the practice of medicine in the broadest sense of the term.

Comments on using C.E. and B.C.E., and the relationship between hatred of B.C./A.D. and the pseudohistorical nature of Western narratives as told by American scientists, atheists, and wanna-be-punks, who will be referred to hereafter as secularists. Seems like the most fickle type of moral prejudice when secularists replace B.C. with B.C.E. and A.D. with C.E.. For cultivating a fear of religion is surely the step which precedes its return to central authority, and is moreover consistent with the entire history of Western religion which secularists claim to have no positive relation. Let them bitch, as bitches do, but I refuse to play chicken with my own history. These widgets of world peace and never-lasting national borders are Europeanic, with a subtle twist: they are speaking English to Americans, believing themselves to be the rightful heirs of Roman authority. This geographical sort of dogma is inconsistent with the ideological splurging of their own history, which is closer in spirit to the Nazis than we shall ever chance to admit. For the rewriting of history, American scholars will need to go their own way.

Full dates are written in ascending units of time (day, month, year). Also acceptable would have been descending units, but I am no historian or recordistic thinker. And since I do not expect my readers to be composed solely of logically minded historians, I chose the former.


387 B.C.

Rome is sacked by the Gallic Senonians, led by Brennus.

The First Punic War, 264–241 B.C.
The Second Punic War, 218–201 B.C.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, 29 September 106 – 28 September 48 B.C.

23 September 63 B.C.

Gaius Octavius is born.

15 March 44 B.C.

Julius Caesar is assassinated by a conspiratorial party of Roman senators, the leaders of which were the infamous Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus. Though the latter thought themselves the saviours of the Republic, they only hastened its demise.

1 January 42 B.C.

The Roman Senate awards posthumous recognition of Julius Caesar’s divinity, Divus Iulius, allowing Octavian to declare himself Divi filius, “Son of God.” Having gained control over the sea in opposition to Octavian, Sextus Pompeius called himself Neptuni filius, “Son of Neptune.” When Jesus Christ later claimed himself to be the Son of God, he created a historical tradition wherein God the Father was none other than Julius Caesar. The open bond which Christ created has been used by the Pope in times past to bestow grace upon Europe’s kings, as “imitators of Christ.”

The Reign of Emperor Augustus, 27 B.C.–14 A.D.

25 July 306 A.D.

Constantine becomes emperor augustus of the Western Roman Empire.

313

The Edict of Milan, declaring a tolerant stance towards Christianity.

324

Constantine becomes the sole ruler of the Romans, uniting the eastern and western halves of the Empire.

The Gothic Wars, 376–382

378

The Battle of Adrianople between the army of the Eastern Emperor Valens and an assortment of Gothic peoples (primarily Thervings) led by Fritigern. The Emperor Valens is killed in battle.

380

The Edict of Thessalonica affirms Christianity as the official religion of the state.

382

Theodosius I signs peace treaty with Fritigern of the Thervings, later known as the Visigoths.

5–6 September 394

The Battle of the River Frigidus between the Eastern emperor, Theodosius I, and the Western emperor, Eugenius.

24 August 410

Rome is sacked by King Alaric of the Visigoths.

The City which had taken the whole world was itself taken.[1]

455

Rome is sacked by the Vandals, led by Geiseric.

Gothic War, 535–554

546

Rome is sacked by the Ostrogoths, led by Totila.

1084

Rome is sacked by the Normans.

29 May 1453

After a 53-day siege of the city by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, Constantinople is taken by the Ottoman Empire. The Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire.

1463

Marsilio Ficino publishes his translation of the recently discovered (c. 1460) Corpus hermeticum.

1517

Martin Luther “publishes” his Ninety-Five Theses (95 FUs), which challenged the sale of indulgences by the Church.

1520

Pope Leo X orders that Martin Luther retract all of his writings.

1521

The Diet of Worms (G. Reichstag zu Worms), with Charles V, HRE, presiding. Martin Luther is again ordered to retract his writings.

6 May 1527

Rome is sacked by the mutinous troops of Charles V, HRE.

1543

First Latin translation of Archimedes’ work is published.

Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium.

Vesalius publishes De humani corporis fabrica.

1545

Conrad Gesner publishes Bibliotheca universalis, what historian Allen Debus calls “the first great annotated bibliography of printed books.”

1572

The clitoris is discovered with the publication of Renaldo Colombo’s De anatomica.

1573

Tycho Brahe publishes De nova stella, after being inspired by the 1572 supernova.

Conscious officially enters the English language.[2]

1582

Pope Gregory XIII institutes the leap year, and removes 10 days from the year to return the calendar to what it was after the Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D.

1596

Johannes Kepler publishes Mysterium Cosmographicum.

1600

William Gilbert publishes De magnete, and becomes the founder of modern magnetism.

1604

Johannes Kepler publishes Astronomiae pars optica, a work on the physiology of vision.

1605

Francis Bacon publishes The Advancement of Learning.

1609

Johannes Kepler publishes Astronomia nova.

1610

Galileo publishes Sidereus nuncius.

Thirty Years War, 1618–1648

1619

Robert Fludd publishes Philosophicall Key, wherein the spontaneous generation of life is explained in terms of a substantive spiritus mundi.

1620

Francis Bacon publishes Novum organum.

1628

William Harvey publishes De motu cordis et sanguinis, wherein he describes the circulation of blood.

1632

Galileo publishes Dialogue on the Two Principal World Systems.

1637

René Descartes publishes Discours de la MéthodeLa dioptrique, and Les météores.

1638

Galileo publishes his final book, Discourse and Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences.

1642

Galileo dies.

1644

René Descartes publishes Principia philosophiae.

1668

Joseph Glanvill publishes Plus Ultra, wherein he catalogued scientific discoveries as a means of arguing that modern achievements had finally surpassed those of the ancient Romans and Greeks.

1687

Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica.

1704

Isaac Newton publishes Opticks.

1776

Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.

4 July 1776

With the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Americans declare their independence from British rule.

3 September 1783

The Treaty of Paris brings an end to the American War for Independence.

August 1789

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man confers sovereignty on the Nation, and away from sovereign persons. Article II declared that the purpose of any political association is the conservation of the natural and imprescriptable rights of man, namely, liberty, property, safety, and resistance against oppression. The notion that these rights are in fact natural and imprescriptable is, of course, absurd. Article IV arbitrarily defines liberty as that which does nothing to harm others. Article XVI declares that any society in which the guarantee of rights cannot be assured, or the separation of powers determined, has no Constitution.

The sexual overstructure which the Declaration of Rights imposed has yet to be confronted in an intellectual sense. Universality, humanity, society – what is lost in these terms is the fact that the sovereign represented the family unit: in so far as the sovereign was a married person, he was not a monarch at all. The problems that have been created by the centrality of Man cannot be corrected by the use of arbitrary definitions that are not in accord with an account of the term’s use.

21 January 1793

The French sovereign, Louis XVI, is beheaded

1797

The first appearance of the female skeleton in an anatomy textbook.

1798

Joseph Johnson, later revealed to be the pseudonym of Thomas Robert Malthus, publishes An Essay on the Principle of Population.

1808–1827

John Dalton publishes New system of chemical philosophy.

1816

Jean Baptiste Biot publishes Traité de physique expérimentale et mathématique.

1818

Arthur Schopenhauer publishes The World as Will and Representation (German: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung).

1827

Carl Friedrich Gauss publishes Disquisitiones generales circa superficies curvas, an early investigation of non-Euclidean geometry.

1837

William Whewell publishes History of the inductive sciences.

The First Opium War, 1839–1842
The Second Opium War, 1856–1860

1839

Charles Darwin publishes The Voyage of the Beagle.

1853

William Whewell publishes Of the Plurality of Worlds.

1859

Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

Bernhard Riemann publishes “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (“On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude”) in the November edition of Monatsberichte der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, wherein he introduces the zeta (ζ) function associated with his name.[3]

The American Civil War, 1861–1865

12–14 April 1861

The Battle of Fort Sumter, and the beginning of the Civil War between the northern (Union) and southern (Confederate) states of America.

1867

William Thomson and Peter Guthrie Tait publish Treatise on natural philosophy.

1869

Elwin Bruno Christoffel publishes “Ueber die Transformation der homogenen Differentialausdrücke zweiten Grades” in the Journal für Reine und Angewandte Mathematik.[4]

1871

James Clerk Maxwell publishes Theory of heat.

Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.

1872

Charles Darwin publishes The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals.

1873

James Clerk Maxwell publishes a Treatise on electricity and magnetism.

1877

James Clerk Maxwell publishes Matter and motion.

1878

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Human, All Too Human (German: Menschliches, Allzumenschliches).

1879

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Mixed Opinions and Maxims (German: Vermischte Meinungen und Sprüche), the second part of Human, All Too Human.

1880

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes The Wanderer and his Shadow (German: Der Wanderer und sein Schatten), the third part of Human, All Too Human.

1881

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Daybreak: Reflections on Moral Prejudices (German: Morgenröte. Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile).

1882

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes The Gay Science (German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft), followed by a later edition in 1887 which includes an important preface from Nietzsche and a fifth section. The title was inspired by the troubadour songs of southern-French Provence (1100-1300). It is in this work that Nietzsche proclaims the death of God.

1883–1885

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Thus Spoke Zarathustra, A Book for All and None (German: Also Sprach Zarathustra, Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen). During the Great War, copies of this work, along with the Bible, were distributed among German soldiers by their government as a source of inspiration.

3 July 1883

Franz Kafka is born in Prague.

1886

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Human All-Too-Human, A Book for Free Spirits (German: Menschliches, Allzumenschliches, Ein Buch für freie Geister), combining the three parts of Human, All Too Human published separately in 1878, 1879, and 1880.

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Beyond Good and Evil, Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse. Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft).

1887

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes On the Genealogy of Morals, A Polemic (German: Zur Genealogie der Moral, Eine Streitschrift), as a sequel to Beyond Good and Evil which he published in the previous year.

1888

Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Twilight of the Idols, or How One Philosophizes with a Hammer (German: Götzen-Dämmerung, oder Wie man mit dem Hammer philosophiert). The title plays off of Wagner’s opera, Twilight of the Gods, as well as Bacon’s four idols described in Novum Organum.

Friedrich Nietzsche completes The Antichrist, Curse on Christianity (German: Der Antichrist. Fluch auf das Christentum), but it is not published until 1895.

The Spanish-American War, 1898

6 September 1901

President William McKinley is assassinated. The Secret Service is officially charged by Congress with the task of protecting the president.

1902

Josiah Willard Gibbs publishes Elementary principles in statistical mechanics.

The Great War, 1914–1918
World War II, 1939–1945

1921

The American Medico-Psychological Association changes its name to the American Psychiatric Association, or APA.[5]

19 September 1931

The Japanese invade Manchuria.

1 September 1939

The German invasion of Poland, and the beginning of World War II in Europe.

First Indochina War, 1946–1954

1952

The APA publishes the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM.[5]

The Vietnam War, 1955–1975

1968

The APA publishes the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-II.[6]

1975

Publication of the ICD-9, with implementation 3 years later, in 1978.[5]

1980

The APA publishes the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-III. Work on the DSM-III began 6 years earlier, in 1974.[5]

1987

The APA publishes a revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-III-R.[5]

5 January 1987

Ronaldo Reagan undergoes a prostate operation.

22 February 1987

Andy Warhol dies after undergoing a routine gallbladder operation from which he was expected to recover.

17 June 1987

The last remaining dusky seaside sparrow dies.

5 September 1987

Nolan Turner is born.

18 December 1987

The Perl programming language is invented by Larry Wall.

1992

Publication of the ICD-10.[5]

1994

The APA publishes the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV.[5]

2003

The Human Genome Project is completed in the United States.

2013

The APA publishes the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-V. Work on the DSM-V began in the year 2000, when researchers began the arduous task of forming a strategic agenda for their research. In 2007, the APA assembled the DSM-V Task Force (the Task Force V), along with 13 work groups associated with various psychopathologic domains.[5]

29 October 2015

With the adoption of a two-child policy by the Communist Party of the People’s Republic of China, the infamous 35 year old one-child policy comes to end.


Further reading

Resources

Abbreviations

APA, American Psychiatric Association

ICD-X, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, where X is an integer representing the edition that is being referenced. The ICD-9 is pron. “I-C-D nine,” although some American physicians still say “ichdeeneine,” believing themselves to be speaking German.

DSM-V, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorder(s), 5th ed. (pron. “D-S-M five”).

HRE, Holy Roman Emperor

Notes

[1] Quote is from St Jerome, Letter CXXVII. To Principia, s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series II/Volume VI/The Letters of St. Jerome/Letter 127 paragraph 12.

[2] “conscious, adj. and n.”. OED Online. September 2015. Oxford University Press. Accessed November 06, 2015.

[3] A collection of Riemann’s works is available online. See “The Mathematical Papers of Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866),” http://www.emis.de/classics/Riemann/. Accessed on 15 January 2016.

[4] Christoffel, E.B. (1869). “Ueber die Transformation der homogenen Differentialausdrücke zweiten Grades”. Journal für Reine und Angewandte Mathematik (de Gruyter) 70.

[5] “The History of the DSM,” found on the official APA Website (Psychiatry.org). URL: http://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm/history. Accessed on 4 January 2016.

[6] Doyle, Robert. 2004. The history of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 27 (2): 203-214.

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